Colon Cancer - 2nd Year GNM Medical Surgical Nursing II, Oncology Nursing(Definition,Etiology,Sign & Symptoms,Diagnosis,Treatment & Prevention)

Subhajit Chanda


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Abnormal cell growth or cell division in the colon or rectal area. It is also known as colorectal cancer.
Colon Cancer - Definition,Etiology,Sign & Symptoms,Diagnosis,Treatment & Prevention


1. Due to abnormal cell growth at the lining of the colon.

2. Due to infection in the colon. 

3. Genetic cause or abnormal mutation in DNA.

⚠️Risk Factor:

⇢Sex- Males are more often affected with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than females.

⇢Previous family history- Some people with past family history of liver cancer have a increase risk for liver cancer

⇢Genetic cause- Liver cancer happens when liver cells develop changes (mutations) in their DNA of cells.

⇢Age- Old age persons are more prone to liver cancer.

⇢Drink Alcohol- Drinking too much amount of alcohol is not good for health. It causes liver cirrhosis and later it transforms to hepatic cancer.

⇢Smoking - Is a greater cause of any type of cancer.

Some medication- some oral contraceptive pills also be a risk factor.

🤧 Signs and Symptoms/ Clinical Manifestation:

1. Diarrhea of Constipation

2. Narrow stool 

3. Rectal Bleeding

4. Pain or gas in abdomen

5. Fatigue or weakness

6. Weight loss

7. Irritable bowel Syndrome  (IBS)

8. Anemia


Hepatocellular carcinoma or Liver cancer stages are following:

Stage 0/Stage I: You have a single tumor in your liver.

Stage II: You have 2 or 3 tumors and it will be bigger in size then the first stage.The tumor may have spread to your blood vessels.

Stage III: In this stage, The tumor may have spread to your lymph nodes, large blood vessels or another organ.

Stage IV/Last Stage: In the last stage the cancer will spread to other organs in your body, such as your lungs or bones, as well as lymph nodes.

🩺Diagnostic Evaluation:

1. History Collection

2. Physical Examination 

3. CBC (Complete Blood Test)

4. LFT

5. CT scan

6. MRI

7.  Chest Radiography

8. Abdominal Barium Study

9. Ultrasonography of the liver and abdomen 

10. PET-CT Scan

11. Colonoscopy

12. Sigmoidoscopy

13. Biopsy


  • Chemotherapy
  • Surgical management- Colectomy


Reduces exposure to a risk factor for colon cancer.
Stop smoking and alcoholism.
Take high fiber diet regularly.

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