Oral Cancer - 2nd Year GNM Medical Surgical Nursing II, Oncology Nursing(Definition,Etiology,Sign & Symptoms,Diagnosis,Treatment & Prevention)

Subhajit Chanda

Oral Cancer

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It is the abnormal and uncontrolled cell growth and multiplication of cells in the oral cavity. Oral cancer includes cancer of lips cheek, floor of the mouth, soft palate of the mouth, sinuses and pharynx.

Oral Cancer - 2nd Year GNM Medical Surgical Nursing II
Oral Cancer

➦ Causes/Etiology:-

1) Tobacco Smoking
2) Excessive intake of alcohol
3) HPV-Human Papilloma Virus
4) Excessive Exposure in Sunlight
5) Genetic causes


Stage I: Tumour make a lump formation in any part of the mouth.
Stage II: Cancer cells grow regularly and make bigger in size.
Stage III: Cancer spreads nearby organs only.
Stage IV: Cancer spread to the other part of the body.

➦ Clinical Manifestation:-

  1. Lumps or bumps formation.
  2. Swelling area on lips, gums or other areas inside the mouth.
  3. Unexpected bleeding in mouth.
  4. Unexpected numbness, loss of feeling or pain in the mouth cavity.
  5. Difficulties in swallowing or chewing
  6. Hoarseness
  7. Chronic sore throat
  8. A chong in the teeth
  9. Dramatic weight loss
  10. Ear pain

➦ Diagnostic Evaluation:-

1) History collection
2) Physical Examination
3) CT and MRI Scan
4) Biopsy


1) Radiation therapy
2) Chemotherapy
3) Maxillectomy
4) Mandibulectomy
5) Glossectomy
6) Combinational
Example - Glossectomy and Laryngectomy

Nursing Management:-

1) Advice to avoid spicy food.
2) Give more fluid for the Humidifier.
3) Provide analgesic
4) Check temperature, monitor vital signs,
5) Check lab result
6) Provide information to the patient and family of the patient about the procedure.

➦ Complication:-

    1) Dysphagia
    2) Speck Speech problem
    3) Changes to the appearance of the mouth


  • Stop smoking
  • Stop Alcoholism
  • Toothbrush regularly
  • Go for a medical checkup if there is any complication.

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