Cancer of Esophagus - 2nd Year GNM Medical Surgical Nursing II, Oncology Nursing(Definition,Etiology,Sign & Symptoms,Diagnosis,Treatment & Prevention)

Subhajit Chanda

Cancer of Esophagus

Definition:- It is an abnormal growth of squamous cell present in the lining of the esophagus.

A diagram of the stomach indicating esophageal cancer
Cancer of esophagus

Risk Factors:- 

  • Gender (male)
  • Race (African American)
  • Age (greater risk in fifth decade of life)
  • Geographic locale (much higher incidence in China and northern Iran)
  • Chronic esophageal irritation
  • Use of alcohol and tobacco
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  • Chronic ingestion of hot liquids or foods
  • nutritional deficiencies poor oral hygiene
  • exposure to nitrosamines(Organic chemical compound) in the environment or food

Clinical Manifestations:-

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Dysphagia (Difficult or uncomfortable in swallowing)
  • Feeling of a lump in the throat and painful swallowing
  • Substernal pain or fullness regurgitation of undigested
  • food with foul breath and hiccups later
  • Hemorrhage
  • progressive loss of weight and strength

Diagnostic Evaluation:-

  • History Collection
  • Physical Examination
  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) 
  • CT
  • PET
  • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS),
  • Exploratory laparoscopy
  • Biopsy



There is no any fixed curative medical management of cancer. Treatment of esophageal cancer is directed toward cure if cancer is in early stage.


Esophagectomy- Removal of esophagus

Other Therapy:-

Radiation Therapy

Nursing Management:-

1) Advice to avoid spicy food

2) Give more fluid for the Humidifier.

3) Provide medications as per doctors order

4) Check temperature, monitor vital signs

5) Check lab result


  • Stop smoking
  • Stop Alcohol Taking
  • Maintain Proper oral hygiene

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