Cancer - 2nd Year GNM Medical Surgical Nursing II, Oncology Nursing(Definition,Types,Diagnosis,Treatment and Prevention)

Subhajit Chanda


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Cancer is the abnormal cell growth or uncontrolled cell growth in any part of our body.


is the main characteristic behind tumors and specially malignant ones. Calls growth continuously without being submitted to the local or general controle of the organisms.

Type of Cancer:-

Doctors divide cancer into type based on where it begins. Four main type of cancer are:

  • Carcinomas: A carcinomas begins in the skin or the tissue that covers the surface of internal; organs or glands. carcinomas usually form solid tumours. They are most type of cancer. Example of carcinomas include prostate cancer breast cancer, lung cancer.
  • Sarcomas: A sarcoma begins in the tissues that support and connect the body. A sarcoma can develop in fat, muscles, nerves, tendons, joints, blood vessels, lymph vessels, cartilage, or bone.
  • Leukemias: Leukemia is a cancer of the blood. Leukemia begins when healthy blood cells change and grow uncontrollably. 
         The 4 main types of leukemia are:

                A. acute lymphocytic leukemia
                B. chronic lymphocytic leukemia
                C. acute myeloid leukemia
                D. chronic myeloid leukemia.

  • Lymphomas: Lymphoma is a cancer that begins in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is a network of vessels and glands that help fight infection. There are 2 main types of lymphomas: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Diagnosing cancer:-

  • History Collection
  • Physical Examination
  • Imaging Test( X-ray, CT Scan, MRI)
  • colonoscopy
  • Biopsy
  • Mammography
  • Pap Smear Test
  • Papnicolanu's text
  • Stools Or occult blood
  • Sigmoidoscopy
  • Colonoscopy
  • BSE (Breast Self Examination)
  • TSE (Testicular Self Examination)
  • Skin infection


  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Hormone Therapy
  • Surgical Method
  • Stem cell transplant (bone marrow transplant)
  • Immunotherapy


  1. Stop smoking
  2. Stop Alcoholism
  3. Take healthy diet daily
  4. Keep away from radiation exposure
  5. Do daily exercises
  6. Do yoga & Meditation

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