Lung Cancer - 2nd Year GNM Medical Surgical Nursing II, Oncology Nursing(Definition,Etiology,Sign & Symptoms,Diagnosis,Treatment & Prevention)

Subhajit Chanda


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Lung Cancer : Definition,Etiology,Sign & Symptoms,Diagnosis,Treatment & Prevention


An abnormal cell growth that happens in the lung or any part of the lung is known as Lung Cancer.


The causes of cancer are mostly unknown that is why cancer is called as an idiopathic disease. The most common risk factors of Lung Cancer are described below.

⚠️Risk Factors:

1. Smoking

Smoking can be the main cause of any type of cancer. Especially in Lung Cancer smoking releases bad chemicals which can cause cancer. Smoking burns the alveoli of the lungs and damages our lungs totally.

2. Past history of Cancer

Patients with any past history of cancer or lung cancer can again got Lung Cancer.

3. Asbestos

Asbestos exposure is a leading cause of lung cancer. Inhalation of asbestos fibers can lead to the development of cancerous cells in the lungs over time, posing a serious health risk to individuals who have been exposed to this harmful mineral.

4. Radon exposure

Radon exposure, a radioactive gas released from soil and rocks, is a leading cause of lung cancer. When inhaled, it decays and emits harmful particles that damage lung tissues, increasing the risk of cancer.

5. Passive Smoking

Passive smoking, or secondhand smoke exposure, is a known cause of lung cancer. When non-smokers inhale tobacco smoke from others, they're at increased risk due to carcinogens present in the smoke, leading to the development of lung cancer.

6. Air pollution

Air pollution is a significant cause of lung cancer, as exposure to harmful airborne particles and toxins, such as fine particulate matter and carcinogens, can damage lung tissue and lead to cancerous growths.

7. Genetic Causes

Genetic causes of lung cancer involve specific mutations or alterations in the DNA that can increase the risk of developing the disease. These genetic changes may affect cell growth, division, and repair mechanisms, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and tumor formation in the lungs.

8. Lung disease

Lung cancer is primarily caused by various factors, including smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, environmental pollutants like radon and asbestos, genetic predisposition, and pre-existing lung diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

🤧Sign and Symptoms/ Clinical Manifestation:

1. Hemoptysis

Hemoptysis is a symptom of lung cancer characterized by coughing up blood or blood-stained sputum.

2. Chest pain

Chest pain can be a sign of lung cancer, typically resulting from the tumor pressing on surrounding tissues or nerves. It may also indicate advanced disease or metastasis. Early diagnosis and medical evaluation are crucial for appropriate treatment and management.

3. Shortness of breath

Shortness of breath is a common symptom of lung cancer, often caused by tumors obstructing the airways or fluid accumulation in the lungs, leading to reduced lung function and oxygen intake.

4. Fatigue, weight loss

Lung cancer may present with fatigue and unexplained weight loss as common signs and symptoms. These can occur due to the cancerous growth interfering with normal body functions, leading to energy depletion and metabolic changes.

5. Respiratory infection

Respiratory infection may present as a sign and symptom of lung cancer, causing persistent cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain. It is crucial to differentiate between benign infections and potential malignancies to ensure timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment.


Hepatocellular carcinoma or Liver cancer stages are following:

Stage 0/Stage I: You have a single tumor in your liver.

Stage II: You have 2 or 3 tumors and it will be bigger in size then the first stage.The tumor may have spread to your blood vessels.

Stage III: In this stage, The tumor may have spread to your lymph nodes, large blood vessels or another organ.

Stage IV/Last Stage: In the last stage the cancer will spread to other organs in your body, such as your lungs or bones, as well as lymph nodes.

🩺Diagnostic Evaluations:

1. History Collection

Take patient's personal history and professional histories to find the causes of Lung Cancer

2. Physical Examination

Check the physical examination to find any signs and symptoms.

3. Chest X-ray

Do the chest x-ray to find the condition of your chest.

4. CT scan

CT scan is an imaging test to help a clear image of the lungs that can find actual problems and stages.

5. Biopsy

The biopsy will help to detect the presence of benign growth of a tumor.

6. Pulmonary Function Test

Pulmonary tests can show the capacity and strength of the lungs.


    ➢Medical Management

        Targeted Therapy

    ➢Surgical Management

        Wedge resection

    ➢Other Treatment

        Radiation Therapy

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