Prostate Cancer- 2nd Year GNM Medical Surgical Nursing II, Oncology Nursing(Definition, Etiology, Sign & Symptoms, Stages, Diagnosis, Management, Complication & Prevention)

Subhajit Chanda

Prostate Cancer

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prostate cancer definition, biology, clinical diagnosis, evaluation, management, and treatment.
Prostate Cancer


The prostate is a part of the male reproductive system which is present just below the bladder. Prostate Cancer is an abnormal cell division or cell of the prostate gland.


There are not any particular reasons for any type of cancer. It basically happens due to the mutation of DNA in our cells. That is why cancer is called an idiopathic disease.

⚠️Risk Factors:

1. Older age

2. Black skin tone

3. Family history

4. Obesity

5. Low level of Vit. D.

6. Prostatitis: It is inflammation of the prostate gland 

7. Elevated blood level of testosterone.

🤧Signs and Symptoms/ Clinical Manifestation:

1. Weak & Interrupted Urine Flow 

2. Difficulty in passing urine.

3. Blood in Urine (Blood in urine)

4. Noctura

5. Dysuria

6. Pain in the pelvis

7. Lymphedema


The stages of prostate cancer are the following:

Stage 0/Stage I: You have a single tumour in your prostate gland.

Stage II: You have 2 or 3 tumours and they will be bigger in size than the first stage. The tumour may have spread to your blood vessels.

Stage III: In this stage, The tumour may have spread to your lymph nodes, large blood vessels or another organ.

Stage IV/Last Stage: In the last stage the cancer will spread to other organs in your body, such as your lungs or bones, as well as lymph nodes.

🩺Diagnostic Evaluations:

1. History Collection: In history collection medical person or a nurse will check if there is any previous problem with the reproductive system.

2. Physical Examination: A nurse will check the physical condition of the person.

3. Digital Rectal Examination: In DRE a medical person inserts gloved and lubricated finger into the rectum.

4. MRI

5. CT Scan

6. Biopsy


➦ Chemotherapy 

➦ Hormone therapy

➦ Prospectomy


➦ Hemorrhage
➦ Metastasis of cancer
➦ Erectile dysfunction
➦ Infection
➦ Sextual Disorder


➦ Stop smoking
➦ Take Healthy diet
➦ Maintain Healthy weight and exercise regularly
➦ Stop smoking

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