Brain Tumor - 2nd Year GNM Medical Surgical Nursing II, Oncology Nursing(Definition, Types, Etiology, Sign & Symptoms, Diagnosis,Treatment & Complication)

Subhajit Chanda

Brain Tumor

Brain tumors are a serious health problem. A brain untreated brain tumor can become brain cancer in further time. A short note is described about brain tumor is described below.

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A brain tumor is a collection of abnormal cells in the brain.


A picture of a brain tumor
Brain Tumor


Acoustic Neuroma: A non-cancerous tumor on the main nerve leading from the inner ear to the brain.

Chordoma: Chordoma is a slow growing cancer of tissue found inside the spine.

Craniopharyngioma: Craniopharyngiomas are rare brain tumors that usually form near the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.

Germ cell tumor: Germ cell tumors are growths of cells that form from reproductive cells.

Gliomas: A type of tumor that occurs in the brain and spinal cord.

Medulloblastoma: Medulloblastoma is a brain tumor of the cerebellum.Medulloblastoma is the second most common brain tumor in children.


There is no actual causes for any cancer that is why cancer is known as an idiopathic disease.

➩Risk Factor:- 

Exposure to radiation - People who are exposed to strong radiation.

Family History - If the patient have any family history of cancer or tumor.

Age - Old age people are most prone to it.

Head Injury - Any past history of head injury can leads to tumor and further go and make cancer.


Some changes in DNA can increase the risk of tumor : Cowden Syndrome, Gorlin Syndrome


  1. Headache, although not always present, is most common in the early morning and is made worse by coughing, straining, or sudden movement.
  2. Nausea
  3. Seizure - A quick sudden abnormal electrical activity in brain cells.
  4. Vomiting
  5. Cognitive changes
  6. Vision change like blurred vision or doubled vision
  7. Papilledema (edema of the optic nerve)
  8. Speech change
  9. Confusion
  10. Memory loss
  11. Hearing problems
  12. Dizziness or sensation of a spinning world.


  1. History Collection
  2. Physical Examination
  3. Neurological Examination
  4. Brain CT Scan
  5. MRI on Brain
  6. Angiogram [Diagnostic test which use x-ray show blood vessels]
  7. Biopsy : Taking cell from brain and checking inside the microscope that there is any malignant cells are present or not.
  8. Cerebrospinal Fluid Test
  9. PET ( Positron Emission Tomography )
  10. EEG


▲Medical Method:-

  • Chemotherapy: A variety of medical treatments, including chemotherapy and external-beam radiation therapy, are used alone or in combination.

  • Targeted drug therapy

▲Surgery Method:-

Craniotomy - Remove a part of brain by making a small hole through operation

Endoscopic surgery: Surgery that uses a flexible tube (endoscope) with a light, camera and special instruments to access a tumor. We typically insert the scope through the nose to remove pituitary tumors.

▲Other Therapies:-

  • Radiation Therapy

  • Gene-transfer therapy

  • Brachytherapy (Brachytherapy is a type of radiation therapy use to shrink cancer cells.)

▲Nursing Management:-

  1. Check the general condition of the patient.
  2. Evaluate gag reflex and ability to swallow preoperatively.
  3. Teach the patient about health and healthy food
  4. Perform neurologic checks, monitor vital signs, and maintain a neurologic flow chart.
  5. Monitor patients with seizures.
  6. Check motor function at intervals
  7. Evaluate speech
  8. Assess eye movement, pupil size, and reaction.


Hydrocephalus [Excessive Cerebrospinal Fluid inside the brain]



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