Liver Cancer - 2nd Year GNM Medical Surgical Nursing II, Oncology Nursing(Definition,Etiology,Sign & Symptoms,Diagnosis,Treatment & Prevention)

Subhajit Chanda

Liver Cancer

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Liver cancer is also known as hepatic cancer, it is the abnormal cell growth or uncontrolled cell growth in liver or any part of liver.

Liver Cancer
Liver Cancer


There is not any exact cause for any type of cancer that is why cancer is called as an idiopathic disease.

There are many chances of liver cancer which are described in the following as risk factors.

⚠️Risk Factor:

⇢Chronic infection by Hepatitis - Higher rates of liver cancer occur in those patients who have hepatitis B and C infection.

⇢Sex- Males are more often affected  with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than females.

⇢Previous family history- some people with past family history of liver cancer have a increase risk for liver cancer

⇢Genetic cause-Liver cancer happens when liver cells develop changes (mutations) in their DNA of cells.

⇢Age- Old age person are more prone to liver cancer.

⇢Drink Alcohol- Drinking too much amount of alcohol is not good for health. It causes liver cirrhosis and later it transforms to hepatic cancer.

⇢Smoking - Is a greater cause for any types of cancer

Some medication- some oral contraceptive pill also be a risk factors

⇢Cirrhosis- Those person who have previous history of liver cirrhosis

⇢Aflatoxin- Aflatoxin exposure can lead to the development of HCC. The aflatoxins are a group of chemicals produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus  and Aspergillus parasiticus.

⇢Bad Food Habit- Bad food habit and poor digestion can increase the chances for liver cancer

⇢Chemical Exposure- Certain chemical can also the causes for hepatic cancer

Obesity and other metabolic disease can be the risk factor

🤧Sign and Symptoms/ Clinical Manifestation:

Nausea and vomiting



Abdominal pain




Splenomegaly - enlargement of spleen

Ascites - Excess abdominal fluid 


Hepatocellular carcinoma or Liver cancer stages are following:

Stage 0/Stage I: You have a single tumor in your liver.

Stage II: You have 2 or 3 tumors and it will be bigger in size then the first stage.The tumor may have spread to your blood vessels.

Stage III: In this stage, The tumor may have spread to your lymph nodes, large blood vessels or another organ.

Stage IV/Last Stage: In the last stage the cancer will spread to other organs in your body, such as your lungs or bones, as well as lymph nodes.

🩺Diagnostic Evaluation:

  • History Collection
  • Physical Examination
  • CBC
  • LET(Liver Function Test) - To check if the enzyme, protein and other substance are working properly or not.
  • alpha-fetoprotein (AFT)- High levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the blood can be found in many cases HCC
  • Ultrasound
  • CT scan & MRI
  • Angiography- A type of x-ray to show the blood vessles.
  • Biopsy


  • Surgical Removal of tumor
  • Liver Transplantation - It is the process of placing a good and healthy liver from a healthy donor.
  • Heating Cancer cell- Killing cancer cells by controlled heat.
  • Freezing Cancer Cell- Shrinking malignant cells by too much cold temperature.
  • Injecting Alcohol into the tumor
  • Injecting Chemotherapy drug into cancer cell of liver 
  • Palliative Core


Reduces exposure to a risk factor for liver cancer.

Stop smoking and alcoholism.

Take healthy diet regularly.

Take vaccine against Hepatitis.

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